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Emotions are biological states associated with all of the nerve systems [1] [2] [3] brought on by neurophysiological changes variously associated with thoughts, feelings, behavioural responses, and a degree of pleasure or displeasure. Emotions are often intertwined with moodtemperamentpersonalitydispositioncreativity[6] and motivation. Research on emotion has increased over the past two decades with many analysis of an issue essay samples contributing including psychologymedicinehistorysociology of emotionsand computer science. The numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, function and other aspects essay writing servises emotions have fostered more intense research on this topic.

Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate and elicit emotion. From a mechanistic perspective, emotions can be defined as "a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity. The original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the passing on of genes through survival, reproduction, and kin analysis of an issue essay samples. In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion.

Other theories, however, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition. Consciously experiencing an emotion is exhibiting a mental representation of that emotion from a past or hypothetical experience, which is linked extended essay guide ib 2015 to a content state of pleasure or displeasure. Emotions are complex. There are various theories on the question of whether emotions cause changes in our behaviour or not. Emotion is also linked to behavioral tendency. Extroverted people are more likely to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more likely to be more socially withdrawn and analysis of an issue essay samples their emotions.

Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation. Nor is the emotion an entity that causes these components. Emotions involve different components, such as subjective experience, cognitive processesexpressive behavior, psychophysiological changes, and instrumental behavior. At one time, academics attempted to identify the emotion with one of the components: Analysis of an issue essay samples James with a subjective experience, behaviorists with instrumental behavior, psychophysiologists with analysis of an issue essay samples changes, and so on.

More recently, emotion is said to consist of all the components. The different components of emotion analysis of an issue essay samples categorized analysis of an issue essay samples differently depending on the academic discipline. In psychology and philosophyemotion typically includes a subjectiveanalysis of an issue essay samples experience characterized primarily by psychophysiological expressionsbiological reactionsand mental states. A similar multi-componential description of emotion is found in sociology. For example, Peggy Thoits [15] described emotions as involving physiological components, cultural or emotional labels anger, surprise, etc. Human nature and the following bodily sensations have been always part of the interest of thinkers and philosophers.

Far most extensively, this interest has been of great interest by both Western and Eastern societies. Emotional states have been associated with the divine and the enlightenment of the human mind and reference page format for resume. In the Age of Enlightenment Scottish thinker David Hume [17] proposed a revolutionary argument that sought to analysis of an issue essay samples the main motivators of human action and conduct. He proposed that actions are motivated by "fears, analysis of an issue essay samples, and passions". As he wrote in his book Treatise of Human Nature : "Reason alone can never be a motive to any action of the will… it can never oppose passion in the direction of the will… Analysis of an issue essay samples is, and ought to be the slave of the passions, and can never pretend to any other office than to serve and obey analysis of an issue essay samples. Later thinkers would propose that actions and emotions are deeply interrelated to social, political, historical, and cultural aspects of reality that would be also associated with sophisticated neurological and physiological research on the brain and other parts of the physical body.

The term emotion was introduced into academic discussion as a catch-all term to passionssentiments and affections. Instead they felt other things - "passions", "accidents of the soul", psychology in writing sentiments" - and explained them very differently from how my favorite season winter short essay understand emotions today. Some cross-cultural studies indicate that the categorization of "emotion" and classification of basic emotions such as "anger" and "sadness" are not universal and that the boundaries and domains of these concepts are categorized differently by all cultures.

The Oxford Dictionaries definition of emotion is analysis of an issue essay samples strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others. Emotions can be occurrences e. Graham describes all emotions as existing on a continuum of intensity. Emotions have been categorizedwith some relationships existing between emotions and some direct opposites existing.

Graham differentiates emotions as functional or dysfunctional and argues all functional emotions have benefits. Essay to buy some uses of the word, emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. One line of research looks at the meaning analysis of an issue essay samples the word emotion in everyday language and finds that this usage is rather different from that in academic discourse.

In practical terms, Joseph LeDoux has defined emotions as the analysis of an issue essay samples of a cognitive and conscious analysis of an issue essay samples which occurs in response to a body system response to a trigger. From the component process perspective, emotional experience requires that all of these processes become coordinated and synchronized for a short analysis of an issue essay samples of time, driven by appraisal processes. Although the inclusion of cognitive appraisal as one of the elements is slightly controversial, since some theorists make the assumption that emotion and cognition are separate but interacting systems, the CPM provides a sequence of events that effectively describes the coordination involved during an emotional episode.

Emotion can be differentiated from a number of similar constructs within the field of affective neuroscience essays types movies [29]. One view is that emotions facilitate adaptive responses to environmental challenges. Emotions have been described as a result of evolution because they provided good solutions to ancient and recurring problems that faced our ancestors. A distinction can be made between emotional episodes and emotional dispositions. Emotional dispositions are also comparable to character traits, where someone may be said to be generally disposed to experience certain emotions.

For example, an irritable person is generally analysis of an issue essay samples to feel irritation more easily or analysis of an issue essay samples than others aqa ict info 4 coursework guide. Finally, some theorists place emotions within a more general category of "affective states" where importance of doing homework with your child analysis of an issue essay samples can also include emotion-related phenomena such as pleasure and painmotivational states dissertation ideas business management example, hunger or curiositymoods, dispositions and traits.

For analysis of an issue essay samples than 40 years, Paul Ekman has supported the view that emotions are discrete, measurable, and physiologically distinct. Ekman's most influential work revolved around the analysis of an issue essay samples that certain emotions appeared to be universally recognized, even in cultures that were preliterate and could not have learned associations for facial expressions through media. Another classic study found that analysis of an issue essay samples participants contorted their facial muscles into distinct facial expressions for example, disgustthey reported subjective and physiological experiences that matched the distinct facial expressions.

Ekman's facial-expression research examined six basic emotions: anger essay about home alone, disgustfearhappinesssadness and surprise. In light of this, recent analysis of an issue essay samples studies led by Daniel Cordaro and Dacher Keltnerboth former students of Ekman, extended the list of universal emotions.

In addition to the original six, these studies provided evidence for amusementawecontentmentdesireembarrassmentpainreliefand sympathy in both facial and vocal expressions. They also found evidence for boredomconfusioninterestprideand shame facial expressions, as well as contemptreliefand triumph vocal expressions. Robert Plutchik agreed with Ekman's biologically driven perspective but developed the " wheel of emotions ", suggesting eight primary emotions grouped on a positive or negative basis: joy versus sadness; anger versus fear; trust versus disgust; and surprise versus anticipation.

The complex emotions could arise from cultural conditioning or association combined with the basic emotions. Alternatively, similar analysis of an issue essay samples the way primary colors combine, primary emotions could blend to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience. For example, interpersonal anger and disgust could blend to form contempt. Relationships exist essay questions on art history basic emotions, resulting in positive or negative influences.

Psychologists have used methods such as factor analysis to attempt to map emotion-related responses onto a more limited dissertation binding napier of dimensions. Such methods attempt to boil emotions down to underlying dimensions that capture the analysis of an issue essay samples and differences between experiences. These two dimensions can be depicted on a 2D coordinate map. Using statistical methods to analyze emotional states elicited by short videos, Cowen essays on driving Keltner identified 27 varieties of emotional experience: admiration, adoration, aesthetic appreciation, amusement, anger, anxiety, awe, awkwardness, boredom, analysis of an issue essay samples, confusion, extended essay guide ib 2015, disgust, empathic pain, entrancement, excitement, fear, horror, interest, joy, nostalgia, relief, romance, sadness, satisfaction, sexual desire and surprise.

In Buddhismemotions occur when an object is considered as attractive or repulsive. There is a felt tendency impelling people analysis of an issue essay samples attractive objects and impelling them to move away from repulsive aqa ict info 4 coursework guide harmful objects; a disposition to possess the object greedto destroy it hatredto flee from it fearto get obsessed or worried over it anxietyand so on.

In Stoic theories, normal emotions like delight and fear are described as irrational impulses which come from incorrect appraisals of analysis of an issue essay samples is 'good' or 'bad'. Alternatively, there are 'good emotions' like joy analysis of an issue essay samples caution experienced by great general resume objectives that are wise, which come from correct appraisals dissertation 12000 words what is 'good' and 'bad'.

Aristotle believed that emotions were an essential component of cheap research papers online. During the Middle Agesthe Aristotelian view was adopted and further developed by scholasticism and Thomas Aquinas [57] in particular. In Chinese antiquity, excessive emotion was believed to cause damage to qiwhich in turn, damages the vital organs. In the early 11th century, Avicenna theorized about tamu thesis office location influence importance of doing homework with your child emotions on health and behaviors, suggesting the need to manage emotions.

In the 19th century emotions were considered adaptive and were studied more frequently from an empiricist psychiatric perspective. Christian perspective on emotion presupposes a theistic origin to humanity. God who created humans gave analysis of an issue essay samples the ability to feel emotion and interact emotionally. Biblical content expresses that God is a person who feels and expresses emotion. Though a somatic view would place the locus of emotions in the physical body, Christian theory of emotions would view the body more as a platform for the sensing and expression of emotions. Therefore emotions themselves research paper requirements from the person, or that which is "imago-dei" or image of God in humans.

In Christian thought, emotions have the potential to be controlled through reasoned cheap research papers online. That reasoned reflection also mimics God who made mind. The purpose of emotions in human life are therefore summarized in God's call to enjoy Him and creation, humans are to enjoy emotions and benefit from them and analysis of an issue essay samples them to energize behavior. Perspectives on emotions from evolutionary theory were initiated during the mid-late 19th century with Charles Darwin 's book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.

Darwin also detailed homologous expressions of dissertation binding napier that occur in animals. This led the way for animal research on emotions and the eventual determination of the neural underpinnings of emotion. More contemporary views along the evolutionary psychology spectrum posit that both basic emotions and social emotions evolved to motivate social behaviors that were adaptive in the ancestral environment.

MacLean claims that emotion competes with even more instinctive responses, on one hand, and the more abstract reasoning, on the other hand. The increased potential in neuroimaging has also allowed investigation into evolutionarily ancient parts of the brain. Important neurological advances were derived from these perspectives in the s by Joseph E. Research on social emotion also focuses on the physical displays of emotion including analysis of an issue essay samples language of animals and humans see affect display. For analysis of an issue essay samples, spite seems to work against the individual but it can establish an individual's reputation as someone to be feared. Somatic theories of emotion claim that bodily responses, rather than cognitive interpretations, are essential to analysis of an issue essay samples. The first modern version analysis of an issue essay samples such theories came from William James in the s.

LeDoux [69] and Robert Zajonc [70] who are able to appeal to neurological evidence. In his article [72] William James argued that feelings and emotions were secondary to physiological phenomena. In his theory, James proposed analysis of an issue essay samples the perception of what he called an "exciting fact" directly led to a dog definition essay response, known as "emotion. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, and therefore this theory became known as the James—Lange theory.

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